World Journal of Agriculture and Urbanization <p><strong>World Journal of Agriculture and Urbanization</strong> with<strong> U.S. ISSN 2835-2866</strong> is established to reach academic excellence on vital issues of global science. It aims to publish comparative as well as collaborative interdisciplinary scholarship that will illuminate the global urban condition beginning with a strong footprint in the Global, i.e. the countries of America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. A platform that brings together interdisciplinary scholarship on the urban, it is equally interested in critical and reflexive discussions on diverse forms and sectors of urban practice. It seeks to do so not only to inform urban theory, policy and practice but also to enable the construction of diverse forms of knowledge and knowledge production needed to allow us to understand contemporary urban life.</p> <p><em><strong>The Journal seeks to:</strong></em></p> <p><em>- Promote theorization of urban processes from the perspective of a wide range of practices that shape urban life.</em><br /><em>- Publish comparative as well as collaborative interdisciplinary scholarship that will illuminate the global urban condition beginning with a firm footprint in the Global South.</em><br /><em>- Provide a platform that brings together and puts into conversation interdisciplinary scholarship on the urban.</em><br /><em>- Provide a platform that allows critical and reflexive discussion from and on diverse forms and sectors of urban practice.</em><br /><em>- Enable diverse forms of knowledge and knowledge production particularly those that bridge the theory-practice divide as well as disciplinary and methodological boundaries.</em><br /><em>- Learn from and inform urban policy and practice across a range of domains and sectors.</em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"> </p> en-US <div id="deed-conditions" class="row"> <div id="deed-rights" class="row" dir="ltr" style="text-align: left;"> <div class="col-sm-offset-2 col-sm-8"> <h3 style="text-align: center;">The work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></h3> <h3 style="text-align: center;">You are free to:</h3> <ul class="license-properties"> <li class="license share"><strong>Share</strong> — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format</li> <li class="license remix"><strong>Adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.</li> </ul> <p>The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.</p> </div> </div> <h3 style="text-align: center;">Under the following terms:</h3> <ul class="license-properties col-md-offset-2 col-md-8" dir="ltr" style="text-align: left;"> <li class="license by"> <p><strong>Attribution</strong> — You must give <a id="appropriate_credit_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">appropriate credit</a>, provide a link to the license, and <a id="indicate_changes_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">indicate if changes were made</a>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. <span id="by-more-container"></span></p> </li> </ul> </div> <div class="row"> <ul id="deed-conditions-no-icons" class="col-md-offset-2 col-md-8"> <li class="license"><strong>No additional restrictions</strong> — You may not apply legal terms or <a id="technological_measures_popup" class="helpLink" tabindex="0" title="" href="" data-original-title="">technological measures</a> that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</li> </ul> </div> (Managing Editor) (Adam Giffs) Mon, 04 Sep 2023 06:43:36 +0000 OJS 60 E-Platform for National Agricultural Market <p><em>National Agriculture Market (eNAM) is a pan-India electronic trading portal which networks the existing APMC mandis to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.</em></p> <p><em>Small Farmers Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) is the lead agency for implementing eNAM under the aegis of Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Government of India.</em></p> <p><em>VISION</em></p> <p><em>To promote uniformity in agriculture marketing by streamlining procedures across the integrated markets, removing information asymmetry between buyers and sellers and promoting real time price discovery based on actual demand and supply.</em></p> <p><em>MISSION</em></p> <p><em>Integration of APMCs across the country through a common online market platform to facilitate pan-India trade in agriculture commodities, providing better price discovery through transparent auction process based on quality of produce along with timely online payment.</em></p> Dr. Surender Singh Charan Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Changing Crop Production Cost in India: Input Prices, Substitution and Technological Effects <p>The economics of crop cultivation at the aggregate level over the past 25 years, identified sources of cost escalation and evaluated the effects of factor prices, substitution, and technological effects on the production cost. The results reveal that a disproportionate change in gross return vis-à-vis cost resulted in varying rate of return from crop enterprise during the past 25 years. During 2007-08 to 2014-15, the average cost inflation reached the highest level of 13 per cent, more than half of which was contributed by the rising labour cost alone. Further, at the aggregate level, use of physical inputs increased only marginally and a large share of the increase in the cost of cultivation was attributed to the rising prices of inputs. The estimated negative and inelastic demand for inputs revealed a great scope to reduce the cost by keeping a check on input prices, particularly labour wages. The estimated elasticity of substitution indicated imperfect substitution between labour and machine and the present level of farm mechanization is inadequate to offset the wage-push cost inflation in Indian agriculture. It is therefore necessary to accelerate appropriate farm mechanization through the development of farm machinery suitable and economical at small farms and improvement in its access through custom hiring.</p> Hari Ram Meena Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 04 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Agricultural Economy of India <p>Nearly three-quarters of India’s families depend on rural incomes.</p> <p>The majority of India’s poor (some 770 million people or about 70 percent) are found in rural areas.</p> <p>India’s food security depends on producing cereal crops, as well as increasing its production of fruits, vegetables and milk to meet the demands of a growing population with rising incomes.</p> Ravi Vishnoi Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Biological Effectiveness of Chemicals Used Against Fungi Yellow Rust and Flour Dew Disease of Wheat <p>The article describes the effects of fungicides and suspensions on the plant, changes in disease development, and biological effectiveness of the used fungicides and suspensions against yellow rust and powdery mildew. 0,25 l/ha (etalon)+IFO PZN 3,0 l/ha on average from 90,3% to 87,9%, compared to etolon Rauma 490 k.e.1,25 l/ha+ IFO PZN 3, 0 l/ha and AZOTE 320 SC 32% K.S 0,3 l/ha+IFO PZN 3,0 l/ha were found to have a high positive effect on average from 98,6% to 99,1%.</p> Oripov Doniyor Maxammadjonovich Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 09 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study of the Genetic Relationship of Cotton in the F2 Hybrid Generation on Some Economic Traits (Correlation) <p>The article presents experimental data on the genetic relationship between economically valuable traits and productivity of backcross and simple hybrids of medium-fiber cotton, early maturity, the number of fertile branches, the distance between fertile nodes, the weight of one capsule, the weight of 1000 seeds and the fiber yield.</p> E. E. Holliev, A. K. Yusupov, M. Kh. Talebaeva, Kh. Y. Nazarmetov Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 14 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Study of the Activity of the External Environment Without A Host Organism Dictyocaulus Filaria <p>In the article, in the conditions of republican farms, sheep play a very important role in the spread of dictyokaulosis due to environmental factors.</p> Tayloqov T. I, Rasulov R. A. Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 17 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Salt Washing is a Guarantee of a Bounty Harvest <p>This article contains recommendations for conducting salt washing activities in the saline areas of Bukhara region. Mechanical and chemical analysis of the soil before salt washing and a number of other recommendations are given.</p> Z. Z. Kadirov, I. Oripov, O. Shodiyev, F. Zaripov, M. Shodmonova Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 17 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial Treasures: Endophytic Fungi in Medicinal Plants <p>Endophytic fungi residing within medicinal plants have garnered significant attention as potential sources of novel antimicrobial secondary metabolites. This review paper explores the diverse and intricate relationship between endophytic fungi and their host medicinal plants, focusing on their capacity to produce bioactive compounds with antimicrobial properties. The interaction between endophytes and their host plants contributes to the synthesis of a wide array of secondary metabolites, many of which exhibit promising antimicrobial activities against various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Through an extensive survey of the current literature, this review highlights the methodologies employed for the isolation, identification, and characterization of endophytic fungi, as well as the strategies used to extract, purify, and assess the antimicrobial potential of their secondary metabolites. Additionally, the mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds are discussed, shedding light on the ecological and evolutionary aspects of the endophyte-host relationship. The paper also examines the challenges and prospects associated with harnessing endophytic fungi-derived antimicrobial secondary metabolites for pharmaceutical applications. By elucidating the multifaceted roles of endophytic fungi in contributing to the health and defense mechanisms of medicinal plants, this review underscores the importance of continued research in this field for the sustainable development of innovative antimicrobial agents.</p> Ubaydullaeva Sh. X Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Modern Features of Water Supply to the Population of the Aral Region <p><em>Supplying the housing stock with drinking water is a strategic task of the state to ensure the vital, sanitary and hygienic safety of the population. When selling water supply and sewerage products to the population, it is important not only to solve the problems of profitability of water supply and sanitation enterprises, but also to satisfy social needs.</em></p> M.A.Niyazmetov, B.B.Sultanov, S.B.Kuranboev, I.K. Achilova, N.N. Inoyatova, A.M. Bakhtiyarova Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 21 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Egg-Laying Characteristics of Hens Belonging to "Lohmann Brown-Classic" and "Lohmann Sandy" Crosses <p>The article presents changes in egg laying characteristics of hens belonging to "Lohmann brown-classic" and "Lohmann sandy" crosses and draws conclusions.</p> B. K. Alimbaev Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 25 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000